Bible story dating
Joseph's servitude thus fits the pattern for the Middle Kingdom period of Egyptian history.
Our purpose here, assuming a 12th Dynasty date for Joseph to be most in accord with the Scriptural chronology, is to examine what new evidence there may be that would both support and further illustrate a career for Joseph in the Middle Kingdom.
It has long ago been observed that certain features of the Joseph Story fit well in the 12 Dynasty.
But if the Exodus took place in the 15th century BC, Joseph's career would be shifted back to the 19th century BC, during the days of the 12th Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom.
But, if we believe in the historicity of Joseph and the accuracy of the events recorded in Genesis about his life and career, we can ask two questions with some hope of receiving an answer from the written and archeological sources: what is the best date for Joseph, and, once that has been posited, do the Biblical events fit in that period of Egyptian history?
In answer to our first question, two major positions exist regarding the date of Joseph among serious students of the Joseph Story who accept its historicity.
Much of this advance is due to the work of the Austrians under Manfred Bietak at Tell el Daba Khatana-Qantir.
This region is now the accepted location of the Biblical city of Ramses and the earlier Hyksos capital of Avaris.