Dating methods used in anthropology
The deposit thus occurring forms layers depending on the nature of the material brought in by the people inhabiting the area.
According to this method, the upper deposits are younger and the lower deposits are older.
This dating method is also known as Archaeological Dating or Historical Chronology. These methods were relied on especially prior to the introduction of scientific methods of dating.
But, even when the scientific methods of absolute dating are available, this method of dating has not lost its importance, as many a time we have to depend solely on relative dating.
Basing on this principle, the cultural assemblages found in different layers can be assigned a chronological personality. In practice it is found that the mounds are disturbed9 by all sorts of pits and dumps.
For example, if the cultural contents of the lower deposit are Mauryan in character, appropriately this deposit may be assigned a date between 400-200 B. Similarly, if the cultural equipment of the upper deposit are of the Sunga period, this deposit has to placed between 200-73 B. Quite often, the archaeologist decided the change of stratum on the basis of the feed of the deposit.
Specimens of organic material which can yield good amount of carbon can be collected for C-14 dating.
For example charcoal, wood, shell, paper, leaves, cloth, animal hair, bone, pollen, tooth, iron, prehistoric soot from the ceiling of the caves practically any material containing some carbon can be subjected Bones are generally affected by ground water carbonates and are therefore least reliable for dating.
Consequently, the chronology worked out for the geological deposits helped in dating the prehistoric tools found in these deposits. There are certain antiquities and potteries which by themselves have acquired a dating value.The types and forms or shape of these pots and also the antiquities under go evolutionary changes in cource of time, It is further assumed that all living animals derive body material from the plant kingdom, and also exhibit the same proportion of C-14 material.Therefore as soon as the organism dies no further radiocarbon is added.However this formula has not been accepted by many archaeologists.Further this formula has been disproved on many occasions. Pottery is probably the most abundantly available antique material in any archaeological site.